• Phrasal Verbs

    Phrasal Verbs

    Like many grammars, we treat phrasal verbs as one kind of multiword verb. Other grammars may class all multiword verbs as “phrasal verbs”.

    The structure of a phrasal verb is:

    verb + adverb

    Phrasal verbs can be:

    • transitive (direct object)
    • intransitive (no direct object)

    Look at these examples of phrasal verbs:

      phrasal verb meaning example sentence
      direct object
    transitive put off postpone We will have to put off the meeting.
    turn down refuse They turned down my offer.
    intransitive get up rise from bed I don’t like to get up.  
    break down cease to function He was late because his car broke down.  

    Separable phrasal verbs

    When phrasal verbs are transitive (that is, they have a direct object), we can usually separate the two parts. For example, “turn down” is a separable phrasal verb. We can say: “turn down my offer” or “turn my offer down“. Look at these example sentences:

      They turned down my offer.
      They turned my offer down.

    However, if the direct object is a pronoun, we have no choice. We must separate the phrasal verb and insert the pronoun between the two parts. Look at these examples with the separable phrasal verb “switch on”. Note that the last one is impossible:

      John switched on the radio.
      John switched the radio on.
      John switched it on.
      John switched on it.
    Separable or inseparable?
    Many dictionaries tell you when a phrasal verb is separable. If a dictionary writes “look (something) up”, you know that the phrasal verb “look up” is separable, and you can say “look something up” and “look up something”. It’s a good idea to write “sthg/sby” as appropriate in your vocabulary book when you learn a new phrasal verb, like this:

    • get up
    • break down
    • break sthg off
    • turn sthg/sby down

    This tells you if the verb needs a direct object (and where to place it).

  • What is a Determiner?

    What is a Determiner?

    Determiners are one of the nine parts of speech. They are words like theanthis, some, either, myor whose. All determiners share some grammatical similarities:

    • Determiners come at the beginning of a noun phrase, before adjectives.
    • Determiners limit or “determine” a noun phrase in some way.
    • Many determiners are “mutually-exclusive”: we cannot have more than one of them in the same noun phrase.
    • If we do have more than one determiner, they go in a very specific order.

    Look at these example noun phrases. The first word in each noun phrase is a determiner:

    • the dog
    • those people
    • some brown rice
    • either side of the road
    • seven pink elephants
    • your oldest child
    • which car
  • Interrogative Determiners: what, which, whose

    Interrogative Determiners

    what, which, whose

    The interrogative determiners are: whatwhichwhose

    Whose iPad did you use?
    car keys are these?
    What stupid man told you that?
    books did you read?
    Which red pen do you want?
    three teachers do you prefer?

    Whose means “belonging to which person”: They didn’t know whose car it was.

    What is for asking for information specifying something: What time did you arrive? I wonder what reason he gave.

    Which is for asking for information specifying one or more people or things from a definite set: Which table would you prefer? I wonder which teacher told him that.

    Like all determiners, interrogative determiners come at the beginning of a noun phrase, so they come in front of any adjective(s).

    Look at these example sentences:

    • Whose iPhone was stolen?
    • He couldn’t remember whose car keys they were.
    • What idiot told you that?
    • I don’t know what non-fiction books he was reading.
    • I asked them which Italian car was best.
    • Which nightclubs on the Champs Elysées did you go to?
  • Adverb Position

    Adverb Position

    When an adverb modifies a verb, there are usually 3 possible positions within the sentence or clause:

    1. FRONT – before subject   Now I will read a book.
    2. MID – between subject + verb I often read books.
    3. END – after verb/object read books carefully.  

    When an adverb modifies an adjective or another adverb, it usually goes in front of the word that it modifies, for example:

      adverb adjective  
    She gave him a really dirty look.
      adverb adverb  
    We quite often study English.

    The position of an adverb often depends on the kind of adverb (manner, place, time, degree). The following table gives you some guidelines for placement based on the kind of adverb.

    kind of adverb mainly modifies sentence usual position
    manner verbs She spoke gently.   END
    place verbs He lived here.   END
    time definite verbs I’ll do it today.   END
    frequency We often go to Paris. MID
    degree verbs, adj. and adv. I nearly died. MID
    It was terribly funny. before adj.
    He works really fast. before adv.
    Warning: these are guidelines only, and not complete. There are many exceptions.
  • Kinds of Adverbs

    Kinds of Adverbs

    Adverbs of Manner

    Adverbs of Manner tell us the manner or way in which something happens. They answer the question “how?”. Adverbs of Manner mainly modify verbs.

    • He speaks slowly. (How does he speak?)
    • They helped us cheerfully. (How did they help us?)
    • James Bond drives his cars fast. (How does James Bond drive his cars?)
    We normally use Adverbs of Manner with dynamic (action) verbs, not with stative or state verbs.

    • He ran fast. She came quickly. They worked happily.
    • She looked beautifully. It seems strangely. They are happily.

    Adverbs of Place

    Adverbs of Place tell us the place where something happens. They answer the question “where?”. Adverbs of Place mainly modify verbs.

    • Please sit here. (Where should I sit?)
    • They looked everywhere. (Where did they look?)
    • Two cars were parked outside. (Where were two cars parked?)

    Adverbs of Time

    Adverbs of Time tell us something about the time that something happens. Adverbs of Time mainly modify verbs.

    They can answer the question “when?”:

    • He came yesterday. (When did he come?)
    • want it now. (When do I want it?)

    Or they can answer the question “how often?” (frequency):

    • They deliver the newspaper daily. (How often do they deliver the newspaper?)
    • We sometimes watch a movie. (How often do we watch a movie?)

    Adverbs of Degree

    Adverbs of Degree tell us the degree or extent to which something happens. They answer the question “how much?” or “to what degree?”. Adverbs of Degree can modifyverbsadjectives and other adverbs.

    • She entirely agrees with him. (How much does she agree with him?)
    • Mary is very beautiful. (To what degree is Mary beautiful? How beautiful is Mary?)
    • He drove quite dangerously. (To what degree did he drive dangerously? How dangerously did he drive?)
  • تفاوت wear, put on و dress

    درک تفاوت wear, put on و dress بسیار مهم است چون این سه در انگلیسی روزمره بسیار پرکاربرد هستند. اول از کلمه wear شروع می کنیم؛ wear به معنی ‘به تن داشتن’ است، نه پوشیدن. dress و put on هر دو به معنی پوشیدن هستند ولی یک فرق مهم بین این دو وجود دارد؛  مفعول فعل dress همیشه یک شخص است ولی مفعول فعل put on همیشه یک چیز (کفش، پیراهن، شلوار، جوراب…) است.

     I was wearing a suit at the airport

    در فرودگاه یک کت و شلوار به تنم بود

    Would you dress the children?

    میشه لباس بچه ها رو براشون بپوشی

    I want to put on this shirt

    من میخوام این پیراهن رو بپوشم

    I normally wear a shirt at work

    من معمولا در محل کار یک پیراهن می پوشم

  • Of Which vs Of Whom

    Of Which vs Of Whom

    1. We can use a non-defining relative clause with “of which” and “of whom” after quantifiers:

    All, both, each, many, most, neither, none, part, some… 

    For Example: 

    Adam has two brothers. Both of them work as an engineer.
    Adam has two brothers, both of whom work as an engineer.

    Brad has very nice neighbors. I like all of them very much.
    Brad has very nice neighbors, all of whom I like very much.

    My mother invited many relatives to my birthday. Only a few of them showed up. 
    My mother invited many relatives to my birthday, only a few of whom showed up.

    I talked to an old friend of mine last night. Some of her remarks offended me.
    I talked to an old friend of mine last night, some of whose remarks offended me.

    2. After a number(one,two etc.; the first, the second etc.; half, a third etc.)

    I want to be flatmate with my friend Daniel. One of his biggest interests is playing basketball.
    1 want to be flatmate with my friend Daniel, one of whose biggest interests is playing basketball.

    There are many books in our school library. I’m quite interested in two of them. 
    There are many books in our school library, two of which I’m quite interested in.

    3. After superlatives (the best, the biggest etc.) 

    Yesterday, my friend and I caught a lot of fish. The biggest of them was 20 pounds.
    Yesterday, my friend and I caught a lot of fish, the biggest of which was 20 pounds.

    I met with many beautiful girls at the party last night. The most beautiful of them was Nora.
    I met with many beautiful girls at the party last night, the most beautiful of whom was Nora.

    4. We can use “of which” instead of “whose” for the objects but “of which” is used in non-defining relative clauses.

    This is the machine. I described its properties.
    This is the machine whose properties I described.
    This is the machine, the properties of which I described.

    I stayed at a good hotel. It’s facilities are fabulous.
    I stayed at a good hotel whose facilities are fabulous.
    I stayed at a good hotel the facilities of which are fabulous. 

  • Phrasal verb – Part 10

    Phrasal verbs – Part 10

    Phrasal verb                             meaning                              example sentence

    use something up: finish the supply: The kids used all of the toothpaste up so we need to buy some more.

    wake up: stop sleeping: We have to wake up early for work on Monday.

    warm someone/something up: increase the temperature: You can warm your feet up in front of the fireplace.

    warm up: prepare body for exercise: I always warm up by doing sit-ups before I go for a run.

    wear off: ade away: Most of my make-up wore off before I got to the party.

    work out: exercise: I work out at the gym three times a week.

    work out: be successful: Our plan worked out fine.

    work something out: make a calculation: We have to work out the total cost before we buy the house.

  • Functions of infinitive phrase

    Functions of infinitive phrase:

    1- Subject:     

    To learn a new language is challenging.

    To be honest all the time is not easy.

    To furnish our home took a lot of time.

    For her to clean the house every day is absolutely necessary.

    *It is possible to start these sentences with False “It” and place the true subject after the verb.

     It is challenging to learn a new language.

    It is not easy to be honest all the time.

    It took a lot of time to furnish our home.

    It is absolutely necessary for her to clean the house every day.

     NB: IT + to be + Adjective + for / of / to + noun / pronoun + Infinitive

    It is easy/difficult for …………

    It is foolish/impertinent/polite/proper/rude/stupid/wicked/wise/kind/good/intelligent/unworthy/generous of ….

    It is alarming/amazing/disappointing/embarrassing/irritating/shocking to …

    He had only one desire – for his family to be in good health.

    (in order ) for me to buy a car, I’ll have to take a loan from the bank.

     ۲- Subject Complement (after to be):

    My goal is to get good grades.

    Her job last summer was to answer the phones.

    The regulation is for boys and girls to live in separate

     ۳- Direct Object: (Verb + to) / (Verb + object + to) / (Verb + to + object)

    She refused to tell the …

    She pretended to …

    Her husband wants her to clean the house every day.

  • Phrasal verbs – Part 9

    Phrasal verbs – Part 9

    Phrasal verb                             meaning                              example sentence

    take after someone: resemble a family member: I take after my mother. We are both impatient.

    take something apart: purposely break into pieces: He took the car brakes apart and found the problem.

    take something back: return an item: I have to take our new TV back because it doesn’t work.

    take off: start to fly: My plane takes off in five minutes.

    take something off: remove something (usually clothing): Take off your socks and shoes and come in the lake!

    take something out: remove from a place or thing: Can you take the garbage out to the street for me?

    take someone out: pay for someone to go somewhere with you: My grandparents took us out for dinner and a movie.

    tear something up: rip into pieces: I tore up my ex-boyfriend’s letters and gave them back to him.

    think back: remember (often + to, sometimes + on): When I think back on my youth, I wish I had studied harder.

    think something over: consider: I’ll have to think this job offer over before I make my final decision.

    throw something away: dispose of: We threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery.

    turn something down: decrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc): Please turn the TV down while the guests are here.

    turn something down: refuse: I turned the job down because I don’t want to move.

    turn something off: stop the energy flow, switch off: Your mother wants you to turn the TV off and come for dinner.

    turn something on: start the energy, switch on: It’s too dark in here. Let’s turn some lights on.

    turn something up: increase the volume or strength (heat, light etc.): Can you turn the music up? This is my favorite song.

    turn up: appear suddenly: Our cat turned up after we put posters up all over the neighborhood.

    try something on: sample clothing: I’m going to try these jeans on, but I don’t think they will fit.

    try something out: test: I am going to try this new brand of detergent out.