• IELTS Writing Task 2: Early adopter of new technologies

    Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of being an early adopter of new technologies.


    State-of-the-art technology has dramatically impacted a wide range of issues ranging from economy to culture in different nations. There is still no general consensus on pros and cons of being an early adopter of cutting-edge technological breakthroughs as it can have as many advantages as disadvantages.

    With regard to plus points, early adopters of modern equipment are likely to take advantage of having access to what may or may not be accessible to others in coming years, meaning they are one step ahead of their potential rivals. An illustration of this is all commercial enterprises that pioneered the field of artificial intelligent and virtual reality. Had they not taken the lead, they would not be market leaders. Moreover, first buyers of cool and awesome gadgets might be entitled to special terms and conditions in exchange not only for dealing with the bugs that most early-stage products have but also for their word-of-mouth marketing for a new device that might bolster its reputation.

    Nevertheless, those who order newest high-tech gadgets as soon as they are released run the risk of paying maximum price that the product will ever be worth. Indeed, despite the fact that they are being charged exorbitantly, they would rarely be able to fetch the same price were they to resell it. Furthermore, early adopters might fall victim to an overhyped release whether it is a PC game or a high-tech gadget. In other words, the product may not be what they expected it to be that explains why as an early adopters, you are probably shooting in the dark. The last but not least, when new innovations come onto the scene, they are bound to come with compatibility issues that can prove inconvenient at best or unusable at worst. For example, when USB 3.0 first came out, it required a new port.

    To sum it all up in one word, it would be uncertainty. I personally am willing to concede early adoption would appear more like a desperate gamble and I am not the one who takes it.

    Hamid Mollazadeh

    Time: 55′

    Word count: 345

  • IELTS Writing Task 2: Air pollution

    Air pollution is the largest environmentally-related global health risk of our time.

    What is the menace rooted in?

    What are the health impacts?

    What steps should be followed to face the constant threat?

    The fact that air pollution jeopardizes the lives of a large number of children, adolescents and adults across the globe is glaringly evident. The grave danger could be attributed not only to burning fossil fuels but also to exhaust emissions of factories and industries. This essay will also discuss both detrimental effects and efficient ways to counter the serious threat.

    Focusing on contributing factors, a great deal of air pollution comes from energy consumption and production. To put it simply, burning fossil fuels like coal and other factory combustibles releases an array of greenhouse gases and hazardous chemicals into the air, the most lethal of which are sulfur and carbon dioxide. Moreover, pollutants released from vehicles including planes, dilapidated cars and smog-inducing gas-guzzlers that have long outlived their usefulness produce immense amount of toxic fumes, resulting in the death of estimated 4.2 million people per annum according to World Health Organization data issued in 2016.

    Regarding the negative impacts, in the young as well as in the elderly, both short- and long-term exposure to air pollution can lead to respiratory infections and aggravated asthma. Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight in addition to pre-term labor during pregnancy are associated with being exposed to ambient air pollution. Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests diesel fumes may develop diabetes and neurological disorders in young boys and girls.

    Moving on to much-needed steps to tackle the issue, on a personal level, driving and flying less, recycling and energy conservation can help reduce people’s carbon footprint—the amount of carbon dioxide a person is responsible for putting into the atmosphere. On a larger scale, governments ought to be required to limit vehicle and industrial emissions by putting direct taxes on carbon emissions or imposing higher levies on gasoline so that city dwellers and industrial complexes will have greater incentives to conserve energy and pollute less. Needless to say, restrictions on old trucks and buses can help improve air quality, especially in the cold season when pollution levels peak.

    The bottom line is that manmade pollution intensified by weather conditions is here to stay and take a heavy toll unless both officials and ordinary citizens do their fair share to help alleviate the worsening crisis.


    Word count: 380

    Time: 60′

  • IELTS Writing Task 2: Water scarcity prevails in most countries in the world and half a billion people face severe water shortage all year round.

    Water scarcity prevails in most countries in the world and half a billion people face severe water shortage all year round.

    What is the root cause of the crisis?  What can be done to alleviate the problem?


    The last few decades have witnessed an upward trend in the number of people who do not have access to enough water supplies in order to meet their daily needs. The water stress being experienced by the earth is fueled not only by injudicious consumption patterns but also by outdated farming methods. This essay will discuss two underlying causes plus some pragmatic approaches to redress the worrying situation.


    To begin with, the critical issue seems to be deeply rooted in unsustainable water consumption habits which have heavily taken their toll on water supplies all around the globe, especially in sprawling capitals where people are blessed with a steady supply of clean water; nonetheless, they often take the privilege for granted. For example, most household consumers keep water running when washing fruits or while taking a shower although they may know that a running tap uses about 16 liters of water per minute. Moreover, farms and their wasteful systems could be considered major contributors to water scarcity all over the globe. To put it simply, in developing and underdeveloped regions agriculture irrigation techniques are pretty inefficient, resulting in large quantities of precious water to be wasted. Take Iran as a case in point in which some 37 million residents are living in water-stressed areas because 92% of the country’s water resources are used up by unsustainable farming practices, which should have been changed long ago.


    Turning to solutions, raising people’s awareness of their imprudent water consumption patterns could play a key role in this regard as it can warn them should water consumption habits not change, many parts of the world will turn into barren desert and entire towns and villages will become uninhabitable. Furthermore, installing water desalination units that is tapping into seawater to provide people with potable water is a sensible approach to sustain a steady supply of water rather than deplete the already dwindling underground water resources. Close to 9 billion cubic meters of the Persian Gulf water is desalinated per year, of which 5 bcm are consumed by Saudi Arabia and the rest is used by Kuwait, the UAE, Qatar and Iran.


    To sum up, water crisis has never before threatened people so cruelly and the growing menace will continue doing irreparable harm unless appropriate measures are taken sooner rather than later.



    Time: 60′

    Word count: 400 

  • IELTS Writing Task 2 : Providing people with fuel subsidies is a positive policy …

    Providing people with fuel subsidies is a positive policy as it enhances the quality of life in addition to helping the needy address a part of their financial problems.

    Do you agree or disagree?

     The issue of supplying the public with low-priced fuel has been a source of contention for long. Unlike some who concur with granting people subsidized fuel, I am of the opinion that subsidization of energy can neither promote underprivileged people’s welfare nor create economic prosperity due to the reasons which will be discussed in this essay.

     First and foremost, deprived households account for a very small proportion of total fuel users in each country that is why subsidized fuel could help affluent families, who use a great deal of energy, more than it does the poor. For instance, vehicle ownership is low among disadvantaged households, meaning they get the least benefit from inexpensive fuel.

     Secondly, state-sponsored fuel is an enormous drain on government budget that may help the needy in a more targeted way. In other words, cutting fuel subsidies will save spending that administrations can divert to much-needed professions via building industrial infrastructure. Take Iran as a case in point where unemployment rate has exceeded 12%; nonetheless, close to $35 billion is squandered on fuel subsidies per annum that could have been used not only to bolster public health and education but also to flourish economy.

     Last but not least, fuel subsidies can have an array of side effects that directly impair quality of life. Traffic congestion as well as noise and air pollution are two of the most striking. Regarding the former, inexpensive gasoline would encourage millions of individuals, even the low-income brackets, to possess their own vehicle the result of which is heavily congested motorways all over cities. Should energy subsidies be lifted, it would free up funds that can be allocated to modernizing public transport. Furthermore, supporting fossil fuels may repress the development of renewables namely solar and wind farms that can help curb countries’ greenhouse gas emissions.

     The bottom line is that underpricing energy burdens the poor more than the rich as most subsidy benefits are reaped by higher-income families.


    Word count: 350

    Time: 60′

  • IELTS WRITING Task 2 , Band Score 7.5 : “museums and art galleries”

    Some suppose museums and art galleries should be free of charge for the general public, yet others claim a charge, even a voluntary one, should be levied for admittance.

    Discuss both ideas and state your opinion.

    It is glaringly obvious that museums and art galleries help people get acquainted with their history, which teaches them an array of important points about their predecessors. Some, I myself included, contend that no entrance fee ought to be charged to visit such cultural places to incentivize visitors, whereas others subscribe to the view that levying an entrance fee can help the institutions to meet their expenses and give better services to people.

    Convincing arguments can be made that being familiar with past historical and cultural events and learning from them plays a key role in countries’ prosperity and those who highlight this fact, including I myself, opine that should museums not levy admittance fees, more individuals will be encouraged to expend time in such places. This can help them get educated not only about historical events but also about their ancestors’ priorities in terms of culture, manners, arts, to name but a few. A newly conducted survey by Tourism Development Organization in Iran indicates that the number of museum goers witnesses a 50% rise on special occasions like International Museum Day when people are charged half as much as the other days.

    Nonetheless, others concede that an entrance fee, even an optional one, has some plus points, the most significant of which is helping those in charge of these places to meet a part of financial demands namely security, renovation, and personnel’s salary. Most institutions that care for artifacts and other objects of historical and cultural importance are controlled by the private sector; as a result, no state budget is allocated to them to meet their ever-growing costs. Indeed, some galleries will not be able to continue serving people unless they charge an entry fee. Needless to say, galleries and museums get dilapidated as the time passes and it is beyond question that periodic renovation needs cash. Moreover, installing and upgrading security systems in these places, which require massive budget, is of great importance. For instance, there are some local museums in Iran whose precious items are frequently stolen due to lack of closed circuit television systems, which should have been installed long ago; nonetheless, it is postponed because of financial constraints.

    In conclusion, I personally assume that the upside of not charging admission fees outstrips the downside.


    Time: 50′

    Word count: 400