• Of Which vs Of Whom

    Of Which vs Of Whom

    1. We can use a non-defining relative clause with “of which” and “of whom” after quantifiers:

    All, both, each, many, most, neither, none, part, some… 

    For Example: 

    Adam has two brothers. Both of them work as an engineer.
    Adam has two brothers, both of whom work as an engineer.

    Brad has very nice neighbors. I like all of them very much.
    Brad has very nice neighbors, all of whom I like very much.

    My mother invited many relatives to my birthday. Only a few of them showed up. 
    My mother invited many relatives to my birthday, only a few of whom showed up.

    I talked to an old friend of mine last night. Some of her remarks offended me.
    I talked to an old friend of mine last night, some of whose remarks offended me.

    2. After a number(one,two etc.; the first, the second etc.; half, a third etc.)

    I want to be flatmate with my friend Daniel. One of his biggest interests is playing basketball.
    1 want to be flatmate with my friend Daniel, one of whose biggest interests is playing basketball.

    There are many books in our school library. I’m quite interested in two of them. 
    There are many books in our school library, two of which I’m quite interested in.

    3. After superlatives (the best, the biggest etc.) 

    Yesterday, my friend and I caught a lot of fish. The biggest of them was 20 pounds.
    Yesterday, my friend and I caught a lot of fish, the biggest of which was 20 pounds.

    I met with many beautiful girls at the party last night. The most beautiful of them was Nora.
    I met with many beautiful girls at the party last night, the most beautiful of whom was Nora.

    4. We can use “of which” instead of “whose” for the objects but “of which” is used in non-defining relative clauses.

    This is the machine. I described its properties.
    This is the machine whose properties I described.
    This is the machine, the properties of which I described.

    I stayed at a good hotel. It’s facilities are fabulous.
    I stayed at a good hotel whose facilities are fabulous.
    I stayed at a good hotel the facilities of which are fabulous. 

  • Phrasal verb – Part 10

    Phrasal verbs – Part 10

    Phrasal verb                             meaning                              example sentence

    use something up: finish the supply: The kids used all of the toothpaste up so we need to buy some more.

    wake up: stop sleeping: We have to wake up early for work on Monday.

    warm someone/something up: increase the temperature: You can warm your feet up in front of the fireplace.

    warm up: prepare body for exercise: I always warm up by doing sit-ups before I go for a run.

    wear off: ade away: Most of my make-up wore off before I got to the party.

    work out: exercise: I work out at the gym three times a week.

    work out: be successful: Our plan worked out fine.

    work something out: make a calculation: We have to work out the total cost before we buy the house.

  • Functions of infinitive phrase

    Functions of infinitive phrase:

    1- Subject:     

    To learn a new language is challenging.

    To be honest all the time is not easy.

    To furnish our home took a lot of time.

    For her to clean the house every day is absolutely necessary.

    *It is possible to start these sentences with False “It” and place the true subject after the verb.

     It is challenging to learn a new language.

    It is not easy to be honest all the time.

    It took a lot of time to furnish our home.

    It is absolutely necessary for her to clean the house every day.

     NB: IT + to be + Adjective + for / of / to + noun / pronoun + Infinitive

    It is easy/difficult for …………

    It is foolish/impertinent/polite/proper/rude/stupid/wicked/wise/kind/good/intelligent/unworthy/generous of ….

    It is alarming/amazing/disappointing/embarrassing/irritating/shocking to …

    He had only one desire – for his family to be in good health.

    (in order ) for me to buy a car, I’ll have to take a loan from the bank.

     ۲- Subject Complement (after to be):

    My goal is to get good grades.

    Her job last summer was to answer the phones.

    The regulation is for boys and girls to live in separate

     ۳- Direct Object: (Verb + to) / (Verb + object + to) / (Verb + to + object)

    She refused to tell the …

    She pretended to …

    Her husband wants her to clean the house every day.

  • Phrasal verbs – Part 9

    Phrasal verbs – Part 9

    Phrasal verb                             meaning                              example sentence

    take after someone: resemble a family member: I take after my mother. We are both impatient.

    take something apart: purposely break into pieces: He took the car brakes apart and found the problem.

    take something back: return an item: I have to take our new TV back because it doesn’t work.

    take off: start to fly: My plane takes off in five minutes.

    take something off: remove something (usually clothing): Take off your socks and shoes and come in the lake!

    take something out: remove from a place or thing: Can you take the garbage out to the street for me?

    take someone out: pay for someone to go somewhere with you: My grandparents took us out for dinner and a movie.

    tear something up: rip into pieces: I tore up my ex-boyfriend’s letters and gave them back to him.

    think back: remember (often + to, sometimes + on): When I think back on my youth, I wish I had studied harder.

    think something over: consider: I’ll have to think this job offer over before I make my final decision.

    throw something away: dispose of: We threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery.

    turn something down: decrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc): Please turn the TV down while the guests are here.

    turn something down: refuse: I turned the job down because I don’t want to move.

    turn something off: stop the energy flow, switch off: Your mother wants you to turn the TV off and come for dinner.

    turn something on: start the energy, switch on: It’s too dark in here. Let’s turn some lights on.

    turn something up: increase the volume or strength (heat, light etc.): Can you turn the music up? This is my favorite song.

    turn up: appear suddenly: Our cat turned up after we put posters up all over the neighborhood.

    try something on: sample clothing: I’m going to try these jeans on, but I don’t think they will fit.

    try something out: test: I am going to try this new brand of detergent out.

  • Phrasal verbs – Part 8

    Phrasal verbs – Part 8

    Phrasal verb                             meaning                              example sentence

    run into someone/something: meet unexpectedly:ran into an old school-friend at the mall.

    run over someone/something: drive a vehicle over a person or thing: I accidentally ran over your bicycle in the driveway.

    run over/through something: rehearse, review: Let’s run over/through these lines one more time before the show.

    run away: leave unexpectedly, escape: The child ran away from home and has been missing for three days.

    run out: have none left: We ran out of shampoo so I had to wash my hair with soap.

    send something back: return (usually by mail): My letter got sent back to me because I used the wrong stamp.

    set something up: arrange, organize: Our boss set a meeting up with the president of the company.

    set someone up: trick, trap: The police set up the car thief by using a hidden camera.

    shop around: compare prices: I want to shop around a little before I decide on these boots.

    show off: act extra special for people watching (usually boastfully): He always shows off on his skateboard

    sleep over: stay somewhere for the night (informal): You should sleep over tonight if the weather is too bad to drive home.

    sort something out: organize, resolve a problem: We need to sort the bills out before the first of the month.

    stick to something: continue doing something, limit yourself to one particular thing: You will lose weight if you stick to the diet.

    switch something off: stop the energy flow, turn off: The light’s too bright. Could you switch it off.

    switch something on: start the energy flow, turn on: We heard the news as soon as we switched on the car radio.

  • Conjunctive adverbs

    Conjunctive adverbs:

    These adverbs can just connect 2 independent clauses

    These conjunction are divided into 5 groups based on their function:

     ۱. Conjunctive adverbs of addition:

    besides – furthermore – moreover – in addition – in fact – also – additionally

    Watching TV is a passive activity; in addition, it wastes people’s time.

     ۲٫ Conjunctive adverbs of cause / result:

    therefore – consequently – as a result – thus – hence

    Smoking is dangerous to one’s life; therefore, it is banned in public places.

     ۳. Conjunctive adverbs of contrast:

    however – nevertheless – still – on the contrary – nonetheless

    Overseas student experience a different life; however, they may feel homesick.

    *The structure of the sentence after on the contrary must be opposite the one before or after that …


    The teacher wasn’t angry with the …; on the contrary, he was happy with …

     Smoking is dangerous; still, millions of people …

     ۴٫ Conjunctive adverbs of condition:


    We must save on water sources; otherwise, we will run out of potable water in future.

     ۵٫ Conjunctive adverbs of sequence:

    then – later – afterward

    At first, I decided to join the demonstration; later changed my mind.

  • Phrasal verbs – Part 7

    Phrasal verbs – Part 7

    Phrasal verb                             meaning                              example sentence

    pass away: die: His uncle passed away last night after a long illness.

    pass out: faint: It was so hot in the church that an elderly lady passed out.

    pass something out: give the same thing to many people: The professor passed the textbooks out before class.

    pass something up: decline (usually something good):passed up the job because I am afraid of change.

    pay someone back: return owed money: Thanks for buying my ticket. I’ll pay you back on Friday.

    pay for something: be punished for doing something bad: That bully will pay for being mean to my little brother.

    pick something out: choose:picked out three sweaters for you to try on.

    point someone/something out: indicate with your finger: I’ll point my boyfriend out when he runs by.

    put something down: put what you are holding on a surface or floor: You can put the groceries down: on the kitchen counter.

    put someone down: insult, make someone feel stupid: The students put the substitute teacher down because his pants were too short.

    put something off: postpone: We are putting off our trip until January because of the hurricane.

    put something out: extinguish: The neighbors put the fire out before the firemen arrived.

    put something together: assemble: I have to put the crib together before the baby arrives.

    put up with someone/something: tolerate: I don’t think I can put up with three small children in the car.

     put something on: put clothing/accessories on your body: Don’t forget to put on your new earrings for the party.

  • Phrasal verbs – Part 6

    Phrasal verbs – Part 6

    Phrasal verb                             meaning                              example sentence

    let someone down: fail to support or help, disappoint: I need you to be on time. Don’t let me down this time.

    let someone in: allow to enter: Can you let the cat in before you go to school?

    log in (or on): sign in (to a website, database etc): I can’t log in to Facebook because I’ve forgotten my password.

    log out (or off): sign out (of a website, database etc): If you don’t log off somebody could get into your account.

    look after someone/something: take care of: I have to look after my sick grandmother.

    look down on someone: think less of, consider inferior: Ever since we stole that chocolate bar your dad has looked down on me.

    look for someone/something: try to find: I’m looking fora red dress for the wedding.

    look forward to something: be excited about the future: I’m looking forward to the Christmas break.

    look into something: investigate: We are going to look into the price of snowboards today.

    look out: be careful, vigilant, and take notice: Look out! That car’s going to hit you!

    look out for someone/something: be especially vigilant for: Don’t forget to look out for snakes on the hiking trail.

    look something over: check, examine: Can you look over my essay for spelling mistakes?

    look something up: search and find information in a reference book or database: We can look her phone number up on the Internet.

    look up to someone: have a lot of respect for: My little sister has always looked up to me.

    make something up: invent, lie about something: Josie made up a story about why we were late.

    make up: forgive each other: We were angry last night, but we made up at breakfast.

    make someone up: apply cosmetics to: My sisters made me up for my graduation party.

     mix something up: confuse two or more things:mixed up the twins’ names again!

  • Phrasal verbs – Part 5

    Phrasal verbs – Part 5

    Phrasal verb                             meaning                              example sentence

    hand something down: give something used to someone else:handed my old comic books down to my little cousin.

    hand something in: submit: I have to hand in my essay by Friday.

    hand something out: to distribute to a group of people: We will hand out the invitations at the door.

    hand something over: give (usually unwillingly): The police asked the man to hand over his wallet and his weapons.

    hang in: stay positive (informal): Hang in there. I’m sure you’ll find a job very soon.

    hang on: wait a short time (informal): Hang on while I grab my coat and shoes!

    hang out: spend time relaxing (informal): Instead of going to the party we are just going to hang out at my place.

    hang up: end a phone call: He didn’t say goodbye before he hung up.

    hold someone/something back: prevent from doing/going: I had to hold my dog back because there was a cat in the park.

    hold something back: hide an emotion: Jamie held back his tears at his grandfather’s funeral.

    hold on: wait a short time: Please hold on while I transfer you to the Sales Department.

    hold onto someone/something: hold firmly using your hands or arms: Hold onto your hat because it’s very windy outside.

    hold someone/something up: rob: A man in a black mask held the bank up this morning.

    keep on doing something: continue doing: Keep on stirring until the liquid comes to a boil.

    keep something from someone: not tell: We kept our relationship from our parents for two years.

    keep someone/something out: stop from entering: Try to keep the wet dog out of the living room.

    keep something up: continue at the same rate: If you keep those results up you will get into a great college.

  • Phrasal verbs – Part 4

    Phrasal verbs – Part 4

    Phrasal verb                     Meaning                  Example sentence

    get something across/over: communicate, make understandable: I tried to get my point across/over to the judge but she wouldn’t listen.

    get along/on: like each other: I was surprised how well my new girlfriend and my sister got along/on.

    get around: have mobility: My grandfather can get around fine in his new wheelchair.

    get away: go on a vacation: We worked so hard this year that we had to get away for a week.

    get away with something: do without being noticed or punished: Jason always gets away with cheating in his maths tests.

    get back: return: We got back from our vacation last week.

    get something back: receive something you had before :Liz finally got her Science notes back from my room-mate.

    get back at someone: retaliate, take revenge: My sister got back at me for stealing her shoes. She stole my favorite hat.

    get back into something: become interested in something again: I finally got back into my novel and finished it.

    get on something: step onto a vehicle: We’re going to freeze out here if you don’t let us get on the bus.

    get over something: recover from an illness, loss, difficulty: I just got over the flu and now my sister has it.

    get over something: overcome a problem: The company will have to close if it can’t get over the new regulations.

    get round to something: finally find time to do (Ame: get around to something): I don’t know when I am going to get round to writing the thank you cards.

    get together: meet (usually for social reasons): Let’s get together for a BBQ this weekend.

    get up: get out of bed:got up early today to study for my exam.

    get up: stand: You should get up and give the elderly man your seat.

    give someone away: reveal hidden information about someone: His wife gave him away to the police.

    give someone away: take the bride to the altar: My father gave me away at my wedding.

    give something away: ruin a secret: My little sister gave the surprise party away by accident.

    give something away: give something to someone for free: The library was giving away old books on Friday.

    give something back: return a borrowed item: I have to give these skates back to Franz before his hockey game.

    give in: reluctantly stop fighting or arguing: My boyfriend didn’t want to go to the ballet, but he finally gave in.

    give something out: give to many people (usually at no cost): They were giving out free perfume samples at the department store.

    give something up: quit a habit: I am giving up smoking as of January 1st.

    give up: stop trying: My maths homework was too difficult so I gave up.

    go after someone: follow someone: My brother tried to go after the thief in his car.

    go after something: try to achieve something:went after my dream and now I am a published writer.

    go against someone: compete, oppose: We are going against the best soccer team in the city tonight.

    go ahead: start, proceed: Please go ahead and eat before the food gets cold.

    go back: return to a place: I have to go back home and get my lunch.

    go out: leave home to go on a social event: We’re going out for dinner tonight.

    go out with someone: date: Jesse has been going out with Luke since they met last winter.

    go over something: review: Please go over your answers before you submit your test.

    go over: visit someone nearby: I haven’t seen Tina for a long time. I think I’ll go over for an hour or two.

    go without something: suffer lack or deprivation: When I was young, we went without winter boots.

    grow apart: stop being friends over time: My best friend and I grew apart after she changed schools. grow back regrow: My roses grew back this summer.

    grow up: become an adult: When Jack grows up he wants to be a fireman.

    grow out of something: get too big for: Elizabeth needs a new pair of shoes because she has grown out of her old ones.

    grow into something: grow big enough to fit: This bike is too big for him now, but he should grow into it by next year.