Must-Used Structures in the IETLS Exam
It is believed that stress is the root cause of so many mental and physical disorders.
Stress is believed / thought to be the root cause of a large number of chronic diseases.
It is assumed that tourism cannot boom unless host countries make visitors feel at home.
Tourism is assumed / suggested to have both merits and drawbacks.
2. Conditional sentences + inversion
Had it not been for the surveillance camera, the police would not be able to identify the kidnappers.
If I were a celebrity, I would organize a charity dinner and hold an auction to help the needy in the country.
Should noise pollution be not tackled, it can cause irreparable damage.
Were the government to create jobs, adolescents would not opt for criminal activities.
3. Of which / of whom
Adopting one-child policy has some drawbacks the most noteworthy of which is gender imbalance.
There are a large number of infamous politicians the most notorious of whom is Hitler.
4. Not only … but also …
Not only can carpooling provide individuals with financial benefits, but also it can protect the environment against eco-unfriendly fuels namely gasoline and diesel.
Not only is being fashionable waste of time, but also it is kind of squandering money.
5. Moreover, … however, … therefore …
The Internet has made communication more effective; moreover, educational methods have profoundly been affected by the technology.
PC games stretch children’s imagination. However, getting addicted to them can totally destroy their future.
Mothers have always played a key role in nurturing their offsprings; therefore, literacy campaigns must be conducted to abolish illiteracy among them.
Corruption prevails among public officials. Furthermore, bribery is common in many areas of everyday life, including politics, the legal system, business, the entertainment industry, medicine, and sports, to name but a few.
6. Participle phrases
Not believing in luck, I have always made concerted efforts to fulfill my dreams.
Having had limited sources of fossil fuels, most European states have invested heavily in renewables to harness the power of wind and sun.
7. Noun clause as the subject
What divorce does is shattering kids’ confidence and threatening their future.
The fact that carrying guns has a detrimental effect on providing security for the city dwellers is glaringly obvious.
Whether homeschooling is more advantageous than traditional one has triggered heated debates.
8. Perfect modals
The government should have introduced family planning schemes much earlier.
Terrorist attacks in London could have had much more disastrous consequences.
Brain drain should have been addressed long time ago.
The suicide bombers must have been brainwashed into carrying out suicide attacks.
9. Distancing / expressing uncertainty
It would appear that the less children sleep, the more likely they are to behave badly.
There are said to be three major reasons for the rampant inflation.
Seemingly, there is nothing we can do to root out widespread corruption in the government.
10. Gerund phrases + infinitive phrases
His having been accused of breaking anti-doping rules will damage his reputation.
My being a vegetarian for a long time has helped me fight lots of incurable diseases.
My friend’s having been involved in different businesses has taught him not to trust anyone.
Juvenile delinquency seems to have become an epidemic in metropolitan cities.
Global warming seems to be getting worse.
11. Present perfect continuous
Astronauts have been exploring the distant regions of outer space with the help of robotic spacecrafts for a long time.
Environmentalists have been running major campaigns to stop unloading nuclear waste in landfills.
12. Emphatic structures
Opponents of animal testing do insist that animal experimentation is both cruel and unethical.
Officials themselves believe that corruption occurs most frequently in taxes evasion and customs duties.
I do not approve of mercy killing, nor do I agree with capital punishment.
Business is not booming, nor is inflation decreasing.